# Oscillatory motion and periodic motion

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Oscillation refers to the repeated back and forth movement of something between two positions or states. An oscillation can be a periodic motion that repeats itself in a regular cycle, such as a sine wave —a wave with perpetual motion as in the side-to-side swing of a pendulum, or the up-and-down motion of a spring with a weight.

An oscillating movement occurs around an equilibrium point or mean value. It is also known as periodic motion. A single oscillation is a complete movement, whether up and down or side to side, over a period of time. An oscillator is a device that exhibits motion around an equilibrium point. In a pendulum clock, there is a change from potential energy to kinetic energy with each swing. At the top of the swing, potential energy is at maximum, and that energy is converted to kinetic energy as it falls and is driven back up the other side.

Now again at the top, kinetic energy has dropped to zero, and potential energy is high again, powering the return swing. The frequency of the swing is translated via gears to mark time. A pendulum will lose energy over time to friction if the clock isn't corrected by a spring.

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Modern timepieces use the vibrations of quartz and electronic oscillators, rather than the movement of pendulums. An oscillating motion in a mechanical system is swinging side to side. It can be translated into a rotary motion turning around in a circle by a peg-and-slot. Rotary motion can be changed to oscillating motion by the same method. An oscillating system is an object that moves back and forth, repeatedly returning to its initial state after a period of time.

At the equilibrium point, no net forces are acting on the object. This is the point in the pendulum swing when it's in a vertical position.

## Difference between Periodic Motion and Oscillatory Motion

A constant force or a restoring force acts on the object to produce the oscillating motion. The motion of a simple harmonic oscillating system—when the restoring force is directly proportional to that of the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement—can be described using sine and cosine functions. An example is a weight attached to a spring. When the weight is at rest, it's in equilibrium.

If the weight is drawn down, there's a net restoring force on the mass potential energy. When it's released, it gains momentum kinetic energy and keeps moving beyond the equilibrium point, gaining potential energy restoring force that will drive it in oscillating down again. Share Flipboard Email. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Math and Physics Expert. Andrew Zimmerman Jones is a science writer, educator, and researcher.

He is the co-author of "String Theory for Dummies. Updated August 02, Cite this Article Format. Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. Oscillation and Periodic Motion in Physics.Participate in learning and knowledge sharing. Forgot Password Register. Already have an account?

### Introduction to Oscillations

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Please enter valid Mobile number. Select Class Please select the class. Forgot Password? OTP has been re-sent. OTP has been sent to your mobile. Baij Nath Sep 10, What is the difference between periodic motion and oscillatory motion? Amarnathreddy M. Answer: A ny motion that repeats itself at regular interval of time is called periodic motion.

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Examples: Motion of the pendulum of a clock, motion of planets around the Sun, etc. A to and fro or back and forth motion of a body along the same path, without any change in shape of the body, is called an oscillatory motion.In this article, we shall study the concept, oscillation, oscillatory motion, and simple harmonic motion. Oscillatory Motion:. A to and fro periodic motion of a body along a definite path is called oscillatory motion.

Equilibrium concept in oscillation is very important because it is the basis of the oscillatory motion. If a system is disturbed from its equilibrium position and then left to itself, it starts oscillating about the equilibrium position which becomes the mean position of the oscillation. It is defined as a complete to and fro motion of a body performing oscillatory motion along its path.

The body covers its path twice in one oscillation. Examples of Oscillatory Motion:. Harmonic Oscillation:. Harmonic oscillation is that motion which can be expressed in terms of a single harmonic function sine or cosine function.

Non-Harmonic Oscillation:. Non-harmonic oscillation is that oscillation which cannot be represented by a single harmonic function. Periodic Motion:. When the body performs the same set of movements again and again within a fixed interval of time, then the body is said to have periodic motion.

Oscillatory motion is always periodic motion. But every periodic motion need not be an oscillatory motion. For e. Extreme Position:.

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It is defined as the position of the body at which the body comes to rest momentarily. They are ends of the path and the body never moves beyond these positions. It is defined as the position of the body at which the net force acting on the body is zero.

Hence this position is also called an equilibrium position. It is the centre of the path and the body moves equally on its two sides.

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It is defined as the distance of the body from the mean position at that instant irrespective of the position from which it starts. Periodic Function:. Any function which repeats after fixed regular intervals of time is called the periodic function. Examples: The sine and cosine functions with fixed time period and frequency.

Thus f t repeats after the time interval T. In general, periodic function can be represented as. Fourier Theorem:.

Any periodic function F t of the time period T, however complex it may be, can be represented by a unique combination of the functions f n t and g n t.

Simple Harmonic Motion:. A harmonic oscillation having a constant amplitude and a constant frequency is called simple harmonic motion. In the absence of frictional force, the amplitude of the harmonic oscillator is constant. A periodic function for which only Fourier coefficients a 1 and b 1 are non zero is called simple harmonic motion.

Thus the equation of simple harmonic motion is given by. Thus the maximum displacement of a particle performing S. This maximum displacement of the particle performing S.We see a pendulum moves right and left or we also see the motion a spring expanding and contracting [Fig a ]. We see that in both the cases the bodies repeat their motion. This type of motion is called periodic motion. So we can say, that if the motion of a body is such that at regular interval the motion of the body repeats, then that motion is called periodic motion.

If the motion of particle of a body is such that it crosses from the same direction a particular point in its path of motion at regular interval, then that motion is called periodic motion. The oscillatory motion and the wave motion are examples of the periodic motion.

In periodic motion the moving path is fixed and at regular interval the body crosses a particular motion of the path from the same direction. This path of motion may have geometric shape. If a body suspended from a spring is released after pulling it slightly downward, it will continue to move up and down periodically. It is observed that the body in its path of motion passes a particular from up to down or from down to up at regular interval. This motion of the body is a linear Periodic Motion.

### Oscillation and Periodic Motion in Physics

If a piece of stone fastened by a thread is rotated at constant angle velocity, it revolves in rational Periodic Motion. The earth moves round the sun in elliptical orbit. At one year interval this rotation of earth repeats. This is the example of elliptical periodic motion. Periodic Motion We see a pendulum moves right and left or we also see the motion a spring expanding and contracting [Fig a ].

Share This Post.Oscillatory Motion vs Periodic Motion. Oscillatory and periodic motions are very abundant in nature and are, therefore, very important in many systems.

Oscillatory motions are motions where an equilibrium point exists. Periodic motions are motions that repeat itself over time. Both of these motion types are widely applicable in fields like astronomy, cosmology, satellite technology, clock manufacturing, planetary motion, automobile engineering, machinery and various other fields. It is vital to have a proper understanding of these motions in order to excel in such fields. In this article, we are going to discuss what oscillatory motions and periodic motions are, their definitions, the similarities between oscillatory motion and periodic motion, their applications and finally the difference between oscillatory motion and periodic motion.

Periodic motions are defined as any type of motion that repeats itself over time. Periodic motions are abundant in nature. Motions such as planetary motion, the motion of moons around planets, the motion of orbital satellites, the motion of the blades of a fan, the rotation of an engine are some examples for periodic motions.

Periodic motions can be classified into two main categories. First one is natural periodic motions, which occur in nature without any external force; the second type is artificial or man-made periodic motions. These motions are forced periodic motions such as diesel engines.

Periodic motions can occur either in regular paths such as circles, ellipses or in irregular paths, which cannot be defined easily.

Most of the periodic motions occurring in irregular paths are forced periodic motions. Oscillatory motions are a type of periodic motion. An oscillatory motion is usually defined as a repetitive variation over time. The oscillatory motion can occur over a middle equilibrium point or between two states. A pendulum is a good example for an oscillatory motion. The oscillatory motions are mostly sinusoidal. An alternating current is also a good example for oscillatory motion. In the simple pendulum, the bob oscillates over the middle equilibrium point. In an alternating current, the electrons oscillate inside the closed circuit over an equilibrium point. There are three types of oscillatory motions. The first type is the un-damped oscillatory motions in which the internal energy of the oscillatory motion remains a constant.

The second type of oscillatory motions is the damped oscillatory motions. In the case of damped oscillatory motions, the internal energy of the oscillatory motion decreases over time. The third type is the forced oscillatory motions. In forced oscillatory motions, a force is applied on the pendulum in a periodic variation to the pendulum. What is the difference between Oscillatory Motion and Periodic Motion? Periodic motions in general are not well defined.

Coming from Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management.Periodic Motion: Any motion that repeats itself after regular intervals of time is known as periodic motion.

Any motion that repeats itself at a normal interval of time is called periodic motion. Examples: Motion of the pendulum of a clock, the motion of planets around the Sun, etc. A motion which repeats itself in equal intervals of time is periodic.

Periodic motions can be classified into two major categories. First one is normal periodic motions, which happen in nature without any outside force; the second type is non-natural or man-made periodic motions.

These motions are forced periodic motions such as diesel engines. Oscillatory Motion: If a body moves back and forth repeatedly about a mean position, it is said to possess oscillatory motion. When a body moves in to and fro motion over and over again about a fixed point, then its motion is called oscillatory motion. For Example The mean of the pendulum of a clock; Motion of a loaded spring etc. Vibrations of guitar strings, the motion of a pendulum bob, vibrations of a tuning fork, and oscillations of the mass suspended from a spring, vibrations of the diaphragm in telephones and speaker system and freely suspended springs are few examples of oscillatory motion.

In all the above cases of vibrations of bodies, the path of vibration is always directed towards the mean or equilibrium position. There are three types of oscillatory motions. The first type is the un-damped oscillatory motions in which the internal energy of the oscillatory motion remains constant. The second type of oscillatory motions is the damped oscillatory motions. In the case of damped oscillatory motions, the internal energy of the oscillatory motion decreases over time.

The third type is the forced oscillatory motions. In forced oscillatory motions, a force is applied on the pendulum in a periodic variation to the pendulum. All oscillatory motions are periodic but NOT all periodic motions are oscillatory.

For example, the motion of a planet around the Sun is periodic but not oscillatory. Oscillatory motions are motions where a symmetry point exists. Periodic motions are motions that repeat itself over time.

Both of these motion types are broadly applicable in fields like astronomy, cosmology, satellite equipment, clock mechanized, planetary motion, automobile engineering, machines, and various other fields.

Similarities and dissimilarities — Periodic motion can be any motion after a certain period that the motion of the previous period repeats. Oscillatory motion is a repetitive motion between two or more states. Oscillatory motions are a type of periodic motion.

Oscillatory motions are well defined for damped oscillations, simple harmonic oscillations, and for forced oscillations. Periodic motions, in general, are not well defined. Periodic motions are abundant in nature, but oscillatory motions are somewhat rare. Oscillatory motions can be represented in other forms of periodic motions.

Simple Harmonic Motion, Mass Spring System - Amplitude, Frequency, Velocity - Physics Problems

Periodic motion is regular and the same for each period; oscillatory motion can change—it can damp out, or increase in amplitude and period.

Oscillatory motion is a to and fro motion about a mean position and periodic motion repeat at regular intervals of time. Share This Post.The oscillating body moves around its rest position, and the motion repeated through equal intervals. The periodic motion is a motion which is regularly repeated in equal periods of time, The oscillatory motion and the wave motion are examples of the periodic motion.

The simple pendulum. The oscillatory motion is the motion of the oscillating body around its rest point, where the motion is repeated through the equal intervals of the time. The amplitude: the amplitude is the maximum displacement done by the oscillating body away from its original position, The measuring unit of the amplitude is metre or centimetre. The periodic time is taken by an oscillating body to make one complete oscillation. The complete oscillation: the complete oscillation is the motion of an oscillating body when it passes by a fixed point on its path two successive times in the same direction.

The periodic time: the periodic time is the time taken by an oscillating body to make one complete oscillation, The measuring unit of the periodic time is the second. September 16, April 8, February 9, Properties of Mechanical waves and Electromagnetic waves. Your email address will not be published. Uses of the concave mirror and the convex mirror in our daily life. Advantages and disadvantages of using robots in our life. Robot teachers uses, advantages and disadvantages.

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